Extending traditional training methods to include focus on an individual’s needs and accomplishments.
Employee training system under which a senior or more experienced individual (the mentor) is assigned to act as an
advisor, counselor, or guide to a junior or trainee. The mentor is responsible for providing support to, and feedback on, the
individual in his or her charge (Business Dictionary).
Types of Coaching
Career Coaching –
Purpose: To clarify one’s career direction and initiate forward action
The career coach helps individuals identify what they want and need from their career, then make decisions and take the
needed actions to accomplish their career objectives in balance with the other parts of their lives (Institute). Coaching
activities focus on the individual’s career concerns, with the coach eliciting and using feedback on the individual’s
capabilities as part of a discussion of career options. The process should lead to increased clarity, personal change and
forward action (BREFI).
Purpose: To fill performance gaps and develop plans for further professional development
Performance coaches help employees at all levels better understand the requirements of their jobs, the competencies
needed to fulfill those requirements, any gaps in their current performance, and opportunities to improve performance.
Coaches then work with the employees, their bosses, and others in their workplace to help the employees fill performance
gaps and develop plans for further professional development (Institute). Coaching activities here are aimed at enhancing an
individual’s performance in their current role at work, to increase their effectiveness and productivity at work. Generally,
performance coaching derives its theoretical underpinnings and models from business and sports psychology as well as
general psychological theory. (BREFI)
Purpose: To achieve skill development to meet organizational needs
This form of coaching focuses on the core skills an employee needs to perform in their role. Skills coaching provides a
flexible, adaptive, ‘just-in-time’ approach to skills development. Coaching programs are tailored specifically to the individual
and are generally focused on achieving a number of skill development objectives that are linked to the needs of the
Newly Assigned Leader Coaching
Purpose: To help a new leader assimilate and achieve business objectives
Coaches of individuals assigned or hired into new leadership roles help these leaders to “onboard.” The goal of the coaching
is to clarify with the leader’s key constituents the most important responsibilities of his/her new role, the deliverables in the
first few months of the new assignment, and ways to integrate the team (s)he will lead with the organization. The major
focus of this type of coaching is on helping the new leader to assimilate and achieve his/her business objectives (Institute).
High Potential or Developmental Coaching
Purpose: To develop individuals considered key to the organization’s future
The coach works with organizations to develop the potential of individuals who have been identified as key to the
organization’s future or are part of the organization’s succession plan. The focus of the coaching may include assessment,
competency development, or assistance planning and implementing strategic projects (Institute).
Coaching to Provide Feedback Debriefing and Development Planning
Purpose: To help individuals interpret results of their assessments and plan professional development activities
Organizations that use assessment or 360 feedback processes often utilize coaches to help employees interpret the results
of their assessments and feedback. In addition, coaches work with individuals to make career decisions and establish
professional development plans based on feedback, assessment results, and other relevant data (Institute).
Targeted Behavioral Coaching
Purpose: To help individuals change behaviors or learn more effective ways to work
Coaches who provide targeted behavioral coaching help individuals to change specific behaviors or habits or learn new,
more effective ways to work and interact with others. This type of coaching often helps individuals who are otherwise very
successful in their current jobs or are taking on new responsibilities that require a change in specific behaviors (Institute).
Purpose: To counsel a leader on how to leave a legacy after retiring
The legacy coach helps leaders who are retiring from a key role to decide on the legacy they would like to leave behind. The
coach also provides counsel on transitioning out of the leadership role (Institute).
Purpose: To assess potential candidates for high-level positions and prepare them for a senior role
The succession coach helps assess potential candidates for senior management positions and prepares them for promotion
to more senior roles. This type of coaching may be used in any organization that is experiencing growth or turnover in its
leadership ranks. It is especially helpful in family businesses to maintain the viability of the firm. Since assessment is often
part of this intervention, clear expectations and ground rules for confidentiality are essential. It may be necessary in some
companies to use separate consultants for assessment and coaching (Institute).
Presentation/Communication Skills Coaching
Purpose: To help an individual gain self-awareness about how they are perceived by others and how to improve
This type of coaching helps individuals gain self-awareness about how they are perceived by others and why they are
perceived in that way. Clients learn new ways to interact with others. The use of video recording with feedback allows
clients to see themselves as others do. The coach helps clients change the way they communicate and influence others by
changing their words, how they say those words, and the body language they use to convey their intended messages
Purpose: To improve effectiveness of a business by providing support and advice
Business coaching is always conducted within the constraints placed on the individual or group to meet organizational goals
(Institute). It is the practice of providing support and occasional advice to an individual or group in order to help them
recognize ways in which they can improve the effectiveness of their business. Business coaches work to improve leadership,
employee accountability, teamwork, sales, communication, goal setting, strategic planning and more. It can be provided in
a number of ways, including one-on-one tuition, group coaching sessions and large-scale seminars. Business coaches are
often called in when a business is perceived to be performing badly, however many businesses recognize the benefits of
business coaching even when the organization is successful (Self Growth).
Purpose: To improve Executives’ performance
Often a service to the executive’s employer and paid for by the organization – coaches are self-employed or work for larger
providers, for example part of consultancy or training – strong emphasis on leadership, strategy, relationships, politics –
executive coaches usually have considerable experience necessary for trust of their clients – fees are usually much higher
than in life coaching (Business Balls). One to one coaching is increasingly being recognized as the way for organizations to
improve Executives for developing new skills, improving performance, overcoming de-railers, and preparing for
advancement. Offer coaching at the executive level and tied to organization goals, often results in improved business
results. Executive coaching is often delivered by coaches operating from outside the organization whose services are
requested for an agreed duration or number of coaching sessions (Institute).
Purpose: To facilitate team meetings and build the effectiveness of the team
One or more team coaches work with the leader and members of a team to establish their team mission, vision, strategy,
and rules of engagement with one another. The team leader and members may be coached individually to facilitate team
meetings and other interactions, build the effectiveness of the group as a high-performance team, and achieve team goals
(Institute). Coaching in its role as facilitator is particularly valuable during the budget and strategy planning season. And
coaching a team before a presentation can dramatically improve performance – as well as self-confidence (BREFI).
Purpose: To improve leadership or career development as a group
Group coaches work with individuals in groups. The focus can range from leadership development to career development,
stress management to team building. Group coaching combines the benefits of individual coaching with the resources of
groups. Individuals learn from each other and the interactions that take place within the group setting (Institute).
Types of Mentoring
Purpose: To develop a personal relationship which provides support for the mentee
The most common mentoring model, one-on-one mentoring matches one mentor with one mentee. Most people prefer
this model because it allows both mentor and mentee to develop a personal relationship and provides individual support
for the mentee. Availability of mentors is the only limitation (Management Mentors).
Purpose: To learn from one another as well as a mentor
Group mentoring requires a mentor to work with 4-6 mentees at one time. The group meets once or twice a month to
discuss various topics. Combining senior and peer mentoring, the mentor and the peers help one another learn and develop
appropriate skills and knowledge. Group mentoring is limited by the difficulty of regularly scheduling meetings for the
entire group. It also lacks the personal relationship that most people prefer in mentoring. For this reason, it is often
combined with the one-on-one model. For example, some organizations provide each mentee with a specific mentor. In
addition, the organization offers periodic meetings in which a senior executive meets with all the mentors and mentees,
who then share their knowledge and expertise (Management Mentors).
Purpose: To develop specific skills needed for their position
This model is tied directly to a training program. A mentor is assigned to a mentee to help that person develop the specific
skills being taught in the program. Training-based mentoring is limited, because it focuses on the subject at hand and
doesn’t help the mentee develop a broader skill set (Management Mentors).
Purpose: To create a mentoring culture and cultivate skills and knowledge in an organization
This top-down model may be the most effective way to create a mentoring culture and cultivate skills and knowledge
throughout an organization. It is also an effective succession-planning tool, because it prevents the knowledge “brain drain”
that would otherwise take place when senior management retires (Management Mentors).